Section 552(b) of the Freedom of Information Act contains nine exemptions to the mandatory disclosure of records. These exemptions and their application by the Agency are described below. In some cases, more than one exemption may apply to the same document. This section does not itself authorize the giving of any pledge of confidentiality by any officer or employee of the Agency.
(a) Exemption one—National defense and foreign policy. We are not required to release records that are specifically authorized under criteria established by an Executive Order to be kept secret in the interest of national defense or foreign policy and are in fact properly classified according to such Executive Order. Executive Order No. 12958 (1995) provides for such classification. When the release of certain records may adversely affect U.S. relations with foreign countries, we usually consult with officials with knowledge of those countries and/or with officials of the Department of State. We may also have in our possession records classified by another agency. If we do, we may consult with that agency or may refer your request to that agency for their direct response to you. If possible, we will notify you that we have made such a referral.
(b) Exemption two—Internal personnel rules and practices. We are not required to release records that are related solely to the internal personnel rules and practices of an agency. We may withhold routine internal agency procedures such as guard schedules and luncheon periods. We may also withhold internal records the release of which would help some persons circumvent the law or Agency regulations.
(c) Exemption three—Records exempted by other statutes. We are not required to release records if another statute specifically allows us to withhold them. Another statute may be used only if it absolutely prohibits disclosure or if it sets forth criteria identifying particular types of material to be withheld (for example, the statute discussed in § 503.6 ).
(d) Exemption four—Trade secrets and confidential commercial or financial information. We will withhold trade secrets and commercial or financial information that is obtained from a person and is privileged or confidential.
(1) Trade secrets: A trade secret is a secret, commercially valuable plan, formula, process, or device that is used for the making, preparing, compounding, or processing of trade commodities and that can be said to be the end product of either innovation or substantial effort. A direct relationship is necessary between the trade secret and the productive process.
(2) Commercial or financial information, obtained from a person, and is privileged or confidential.
(i) Information is “commercial or financial” if it relates to businesses, commerce, trade, employment, profits, or finances (including personal finances).
(ii) Information is obtained from someone outside the Federal Government or from someone within the Government who has a commercial or financial interest in the information. “Person” includes an individual, partnership, corporation, association, state or foreign government, or other organization. Information is not “obtained from a person” if it is generated by BBG or another Federal agency.
(iii) Information is “privileged” if it would ordinarily be protected from disclosure in civil discovery by a recognized evidentiary privilege, such as the attorney-client privilege, or the work-product privilege. Information may be privileged for this purpose under a privilege belonging to a person outside the Government, unless the providing of the information to the Government rendered the information no longer protectible in civil discovery.
(iv) Information is “confidential” if it meets one of the following tests:
(A) Disclosure may impair the Government's ability to obtain necessary information in the future;
(B) Disclosure would substantially harm the competitive position of the person who submitted the information;
(C) Disclosure would impair other Government interests, such as program effectiveness and compliance; or
(D) Disclosure would impair other private interests, such as an interest in controlling availability of intrinsically valuable records, which are sold in the market by their owner.
(3) Designation of certain confidential information. A person who submits records to the Government may designate part or all of the information in such records as exempt from disclosure under Exemption four. The person may make this designation either at the time the records are submitted to the Government or within a reasonable time thereafter. The designation must be in writing. The legend prescribed by a request for proposal or request for quotations according to any agency regulation establishing a substitute for the language is sufficient but not necessary for this purpose. Any such designation will expire ten years after the records were submitted to the Government.
(4) Predisclosure notification. The procedures in this paragraph apply to records that were submitted to the Government and where we have substantial reason to believe that information in the records could reasonably be considered exempt under Exemption four. Certain exceptions to these procedures are stated in paragraph (d)(5) of this section.
(i) When we receive a request for such records and we determine that we may be required to disclose them, we will make reasonable efforts to notify the submitter about these facts. The notice will inform the submitter about the procedures and time limits for submission and consideration of objections to disclosure. If we must notify a large number of submitters, we may do this by posting or publishing a notice in a place where the submitters are reasonably likely to become aware of it.
(ii) The submitter has ten (10) working days from receipt of the notice to object to disclosure of any part of the records and to state all bases for its objections.
(iii) We will give consideration to all bases that have been timely stated by the submitter. If we decide to disclose the records and the submitter still does not agree, we will send a written notice to the submitter stating briefly why we did not sustain its objections and we will provide a copy of the records as we intend to release them. The notice will state that we will disclose the records five (5) working days after the submitter receives the notice unless we are ordered by a United States District Court not to release them.
(iv) When a requester files suit under the FOIA to obtain records covered by this paragraph, we will promptly notify the submitter.
(v) Whenever we send a notice to a submitter under paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section, we will notify you that we are giving the submitter a notice and an opportunity to object.
(5) Exceptions to predisclosure notification. The notice requirements in paragraph (d)(4) of this section do not apply in the following situations:
(i) We decide not to disclose the records;
(ii) The information has previously been published or made generally available;
(iii) We have already notified the submitter of previous requests for the same records and have come to an understanding with that submitter about the records;
(iv) Disclosure is required by a statute other than the FOIA;
(v) Disclosure is required by a regulation, issued after notice and opportunity for public comment that specifies narrow categories of records that are to be disclosed under the FOIA. In this case a submitter may still designate records as described in paragraph (d)(3) of this section and in exceptional cases, at our discretion, may follow the notice procedures in paragraph (d)(4) of this section;
(vi) The designation appears to be obviously frivolous, but in this case we will still give the submitter the written notice required by paragraph (d)(4)(iii) of this section (although this notice need not explain our decision or include a copy of the records); and
(vii) We withhold the information because another statute requires its withholding.
(e) Exemption five—Internal memoranda. This exemption covers internal Government communications and notes that fall within a generally recognized evidentiary privilege. Internal Government communications include an agency's communications with an outside consultant or other outside person, with a court, or with Congress, when those communications are for a purpose similar to the purpose of privileged intra-agency communications. Some of the most common applicable privileges are:
(1) The deliberative process privilege. This privilege protects predecisional deliberative communications. A communication is protected under this privilege if it was made before a final decision was reached on some question of policy and if it expressed recommendations or opinions on that question. The purpose of this privilege is to prevent injury to the quality of the agency decision making process by encouraging open and frank internal policy discussions, by avoiding premature disclosure of policies not yet adopted, and by avoiding the public confusion that might result from disclosing reasons that were not in fact the ultimate grounds for an agency's decision. This privilege continues to protect pre-decisional documents even after a decision is made. We will release purely factual material in a deliberative document unless that material is otherwise exempt. However, purely factual material in a deliberative document is within this privilege if:
(i) It is inextricably intertwined with the deliberative portions so that it cannot reasonably be segregated; or
(ii) It would reveal the nature of the deliberative portions, or
(iii) Its disclosure would in some other way make possible an intrusion into the decision making process.
(2) Attorney-client privilege. This privilege protects confidential communications between a lawyer and an employee or agent of the Government where an attorney-client relationship exists (for example, where the lawyer is acting as attorney for the agency and the employee is communicating on behalf of the agency) and where the employee has communicated information to the attorney in confidence in order to obtain legal advice or assistance, and/or when the attorney has given advice to the client.
(3) Attorney work product privilege. This privilege protects documents prepared by or for an agency, or by or for its representative (usually BBG attorneys) in anticipation of litigation or for trial. It includes documents prepared for purposes of administrative adjudications as well as court litigation. It includes factual material in such documents as well as material revealing opinions and tactics. The privilege continues to protect the documents even after the litigation is closed.
(f) Exemption six—Clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. We may withhold personnel, medical, and similar files, and personal information about individuals if disclosure would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy.
(1) Balancing test. In deciding whether to release records that contain personal or private information about someone else to a requester, we weigh the foreseeable harm of invading that individual's privacy against the public benefit that would result from the release of the information. In our evaluation of requests for records, we attempt to guard against the release of information that might involve a violation of personal privacy by a requester being able to “piece together items” or “read between the lines” information that would normally be exempt from mandatory disclosure.
(2) Information frequently withheld. We frequently withhold such information as home addresses, home telephone numbers, ages, minority group status, social security numbers, individual's benefits, earning records, leave records, etc.
(g) Exemption seven—Law enforcement. We are not required to release information or records that the Government has compiled for law enforcement purposes. The records may apply to actual or potential violations of either criminal or civil laws or regulations. We can withhold these records only to the extent that releasing them would cause harm in at least one of the following situations:
(1) Enforcement proceedings. We may withhold information when release could reasonably be expected to interfere with prospective or ongoing law enforcement proceedings, investigations of fraud and mismanagement, employee misconduct, and civil rights violations may fall into this category. In certain cases, we may refuse to confirm or deny the existence of records that relate to violations in order not to disclose that an investigation is in progress or may be conducted.
(2) Fair trial or impartial adjudication. We may withhold records when release would deprive a person of a fair trial or an impartial adjudication because of prejudicial publicity.
(3) Personal privacy. We are careful not to disclose information that could reasonably be expected to constitute an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. When a name surfaces in an investigation, that person is likely to be vulnerable to innuendo, rumor, harassment, or retaliation.
(4) Confidential sources and information. We may withhold records whose release could reasonably be expected to disclose the identity of a confidential source of information. A confidential source may be an individual; a state, local or foreign Government agency; or any private organization. The exemption applies whether the source provides information under an express promise of confidentiality or under circumstances from which such an assurance could be reasonably inferred. Also, where the record or information in it has been compiled by a criminal law enforcement authority conducting a criminal investigation or by an agency conducting a lawful national security investigation, the exemption also protects all information supplied by a confidential source. Also protected from mandatory disclosure is any information which, if disclosed, could reasonably be expected to jeopardize the system of confidentiality that assures a flow of information from sources to investigatory agencies.
(5) Techniques and procedures. We may withhold records reflecting special techniques or procedures of investigation or prosecution not otherwise generally known to the public. In some cases, it is not possible to describe even in general terms those techniques without disclosing the very material to be withheld. We may also withhold records whose release would disclose guidelines for law enforcement investigations or prosecutions if this disclosure could reasonably be expected to create a risk that someone could circumvent requirements of law or of regulation.
(6) Life and physical safety. We may withhold records whose disclosure could reasonably be expected to endanger the life or physical safety of any individual. This protection extends to threats and harassment as well as to physical violence.
(h) Exemptions eight and nine—Records on financial institutions and records on wells.(1) Exemption eight permits us to withhold records about regulation or supervision of financial institutions.
(2) Exemption nine permits the withholding of geological and geophysical information and data, including maps concerning wells.
Title 22 published on 2012-04-01
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This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.